What a disgrace for the United Kingdom?

English/Opinion 2014. 11. 20. 00:35


 What a disgrace for the United Kingdom?

 U.K is one of the powerful countries in the world. However, they have also bad reputation for the one thing that most people would agree. It is the food. Whenever some surveys, such as “which country has the worst food in the world?”, are conducted, British holds a high rank often, unfortunately. Why do people think that British food is the worst in the world?

 One of the several reasons could be a bad climate condition. Due to the geographic location, the UK gets influenced by the unsettled weather which is why people can experience many types of weather in a single day. Besides, this weather condition makes a shortage of food ingredients because it can limit the possibility of cultivating various ingredients.

Second reason might be the way how it cooks and how it looks. According to the survey, many respondents said that British food is the worst in the world because they eat the food in a weird way and also because of ingredients that they use to cook. Haggis, for example, is originally made of sheep’s heart, liver, and lungs encased in animal’s stomach. The unusual looking foods and the food made of uncommon ingredients can make people having resistance in mind.

 Last one could be British people’s dietary habit which could harm their own health. People around the world are getting more care about their health nowadays, which is why well-being food is gaining a spotlight. On the other hand, British food that is popular for people such as Fish and Chips and British breakfast is fried one including trans fats which could cause the disease like heart trouble or stroke.

British food has been developed as economy has and food is very important in terms of the UK’s national image. For instance, food is going to be one of the essential parts to consider when foreigners plan to travel to. It is still true that British food has insufficient impact to get people from the world.

Modern Family S01 E09 - Fizbo

English/Modern Family 2014. 8. 11. 15:23

1) paramedics

n : A person whose training is similar to that of a nurse and who helps to do medical work.

2) sky is the limit

: unlimited. no limitation. reaching out as far as you can.

3) extension

n : A part which is connected to a piece of equipment in order to make it reach something further away.

4) shuffle

n, v : If you shuffle somewhere, you walk there without lifting your feet properly off the ground.

v : If you shuffle around, you move your feet about while standing or you move your bottom about while sitting, often because you feel uncomfortable or embarrased.

5) improvise

v : If you improvise, you make or do something using whatever you have or without having planned it in advance.

v : When performers improvise, they invest music or words as they play, sing, or speak.

6) machete

n : A large knife with a broad blade.

7) cricket

n : An outdoor game played between two terms. Players try to score points, called runs by hitting a ball with a wooden bat.

n : A small jumping insect that produces short, loud sounds by rubbing its wings together.

* step it up the notch <-> take it down the notch

8) notch

n : A level on a scale of measurement or achievement.

n : A small V-shaped or circular cut in the surface or edge of something.

9) bearded dragon

n : A large Australian lizard, Amphibolurus barbatus, with an erectile frill around the neck.

n : Another name for frill-necked lizard.

10) erectile

a : Capable of becoming rigid or erect as the result of being filled with blood.

a : Capable of being erected.

11) frill

n : A long narrow strip of cloth or paper with many folds in it, which is attached to something as a decoration.

n : If you describe something as having no frills, you mean that it has no extra features, but is acceptable or good if you want something simple.

12) be/go back to square one

: start something again from the beginning because your first idea, plan, action, etc, has failed or has been stopped.

13) release

v : If someone in authority releases something such as a document or information, they make it available.

14) snow cone

n : A variation of the shaved ice dessert commonly served throughout North America in paper cones or foam cups. The dessert consists of ice shavings that are topped with flavored sugar syrup.

15) tease

n,v : to tease someone means to laugh at them or make jokes about them in order to embarrass, annoy, or upset them.

n,v : If you say that someone is teasing, you mean that they are pretending to offer you something that you want, especially sex, but then not giving it to you.

16) comb

n : A flat piece of plastic or metal with narrow pointed teeth along one side, which you use to tidy your hair.

17) sheath

n : A covering for the blade of a knife.

n : = condom.

18) blast

n : A big explosion, especially one caused by a bomb.

19) hole in one

n : A shot from the tee that finished in the hole.

v : to score a hole in one.

20) schooling

n : Education that children receive at school.

21) fishing

n : The sport, hobby, or business of catching fish.

22) clown

n : A performer in a circus who wears funny clothes and bright make-up, and does silly things in order to make people laugh.

v : If you clown, you do silly things in order to make people laugh.

e.g> Bruno clowned and won affection everywhere.

23) asexual

a : Something that is asexual involves no sexual activity.

a : Asexual creatures and plants have no sexual organs.

a : Someone who is not sexually attracted to other people.

24) rope something off

: to separate one area from another with ropes, to stop people from entering it.

25) bead

n : Small pieces of coloured glass, wood, or plastic with a hole through the middle. Beads are often put together on a piece of string or wire to make jewellery.

n : A bead of liquid or moisture is a small drop of it.

26) glitter

v : If something glitters, light comes from or is reflected off different parts of it.

n : Glitter consists of tiny shining pieces of metal. It is glued to things for decorations.

n : You can use glitter to refer to superficial attractiveness or to the excitement connected with something.

27) musty

a : Something that is musty smells old and damp.

28) complete package

: to describe someone who is perfect with not only appearance but characteristics, intelligence, etc.

29) deploy

v : to deploy troops or military resources means to organize or position them so that they are ready to be used.

* Let me know if we get low on supplies.

* Did you remember to switch the whites to the dryer.

* She has good handwriting, she's complete package.

30) gloat

v : If someone is gloating, they are showing pleasure at their own success or at other people's failure in an arrogant and unpleasant way.

31) dud

a : Not working properly or not successful.

e.g> If you came over here to gloat, I already know it's a dud.

32) slip away

: to leave quietly without attracting attention. (=slip off)

e.g> I slipped away to my room to write some letters.

e.g> He managed to slip off alone for an hour.

: If a period of time slips away, it passes more quickly than you realize 

e.g> She could see here childhood slipping away.

: (from sb) to disappear ; to die or to stop existing.

e.g> He slipped away peacefully during the night.

33) pet

n : An animal you keep in your home to give you company and pleasure.

a : Someone's pet theory, project, or subject is one that they particularly support or like.

v : If you pet a person or animal, you touch them in an affectionate way.

34) suck

v : If you suck something, you hold it in your mouth, and pull at it with the muscles in your cheeks and tongue, for example in order to get liquid out of it.

v : If something sucks a liquid, gas, or object in a particular direction, it draws it there with a powerful force.

v : If you are sucked into a bad situation, you are unable to prevent yourself from becoming involved in it.

v : If someone says that something sucks, they are indicating that they think it's very bad.

35) suck in

v : to attract by using an inexorable force, inducement, etc.

v : to draw in (one's breath) sharply.

v : to deceive or defraud.

36) hit the road

: begin a journey.

37) gentrify

v : When a street or area is gentrified, it becomes a more expensive place to live because wealthy people move into the area and buy the houses where people with less money used to live.

38) join the club

: said as a reply to somebody who tells you their bad news when you are or have been in the same situation yourself ; an expression of sympathy.

39) come on strong(with somebody)

: make your feelings clear in an aggressive way.

e.g> Do you think I came on too strong at that meeting?

40) get-up

n : If you refer to a set of clothes as a get-up, you think that they are unusual or ridiculous.

41) mess with somebody

: to get involved with somebody who may react in a dangerous or violent way.

: to have or try to have a sexual relationship with somebody.

42) uninhibited

a : If you describe a person or their behaviour as uninhibited, you mean that they express their opinions and feelings openly, and behave as they want to, without worrying what other people think.

43) inhibit

v : If something inhibits an event or process, it prevents it or slows it down.

v : to inhibit someone from doing something means to prevent them from doing it.

44) inhibited

a : If you say that someone is inhibited, you mean they find it difficult to behave naturally and show their feelings, and that you think this is a bad thing.

45) slip something on

: to put clothes or shoes on quickly and easily.

46) bust

v : If you bust something, you break it or damage it so badly that it can't be used.

v : If someone is busted, the police arrest them.

v : If police bust a place, they go to it in order to arrest people who are doing something illegal.

a : A company or fund that is bust has no money left and has been forced to close down.

47) flipper

n : Flat pieces of rubber that you can wear on your feet to help you swim more quickly, especially underwater.

n : The flippers of an animal that lives in water, for example a seal or a penguin, are the two or four flat limbs which it uses for swimming.

48) one way or another

: in various different ways now considered together.

49) smother

v : If you smother a fire, you cover it with something to put it out.

v : to smother someone means to kill them by covering their face with something so that they can't breathe.

v : If you smother someone, you show your love for them too much and protect them too much.

v : If you smother an emotion or a reaction, you control it so that people do not notice it.

v : If an activity or process is smothered, it is prevented from continuing or developing.

50) proactive

a : Proactive actions are intended to cause changes, rather than just reacting to change.

51) sting

n,v : If a plant, animal, or insect stings you, a sharp part of it, usually covered with poison, is pushed into your skin so that you feel a sharp pain.

n,v : If a part of your body stings, or if a substance stings it, you feel a sharp pain there.

v : If someone's remarks sting you, they make you feel hurt and annoyed.

* She won't know what hit her

* Hot reptile chick, you know, probably has her own apartment and obviously okay touching gross stuff.

* Dylan's far too sophisticated to get sucked in by a single lady with tons of cool tatoos.

* I think it peed on me.

* I regularly drive through neighborhoods that have only recently been gentrified.

* Look, I came on strong with that whole funny guy bit

* Let's all tuck our pants into our socks, Avoid shady, moist places, Let's make a game of looking where we step

* If you had asked me before the party if I wanted there to be the chain reaction of disasters that led to luke breaking his arm, I probably would have said no.


Definitely not, would not want that

but one way or another Luke was the centre of attention on his birthday and the whole family was together. just the way it should be.

Modern Family S01 E08 - Great Expectations

English/Modern Family 2014. 7. 31. 11:22


1) perm

n : If you have a perm, your hair is curled and treated with chemicals so that it stays curly for several months.

v : When a hair stylist perms someone's hair, they curl it and treat it with chemicals so that it stays curly for several months.

2) frame

v : If an object is framed by a particular thing, it is surrounded by that thing in a way that makes the object more striking or attractive to look at.

3) bureau

n : An office, organization, or government department that collects and distributes information.

n : An office of a company or organization which has its main office in another town or county.

n : A writing desk with shelves and drawers and a lid that opens to form the writing surface.

n : A chest of drawers.

4) inhibition

n : Feelings of fear or embarrassment that make it difficult for you to behave naturally.

5) The more, the merrier

: The more people or things there are, the better the situation will be or the more fun people will have.

6) sloppy

a : If you describe someone's work or activities as sloppy, you mean they have been done in a careless and lazy way.

a : If you describe someone or something as sloppy, you mean that they are sentimental and romantic.

7) bleach

v : If you bleach something, you use a chemical to make it white or pale in colour.

v : If the sun bleaches something, or something bleaches, its colour gets paler until it is almost white.

n: Bleach is a chemical that is used to make cloth white, or to clean things thoroughly and kill germs.

* pale

a : Very light in colour or almost white.

8) passion fruit

n : A small, round, brown, fruit that is produced by certain types of tropical flower.

9) daiquiri

n : A drink made with rum, lime, or lemon juice, sugar, and ice.

10) stinker

n : Someone who is very unpleasant or bad.

11) howdy = hello

howdy-do = how-d'ye do

12) take it down a notch

: instruction to an individual to regulate his or her level of enthusiasm.

e.g> Robert needs to take it down a notch with flirting.

13) back at you

: used to return a greeting or insult.

14) read it and weep

: When you want to give someone bad news, especially if that news is in written form.

e.g> How did I do on the test? / You failed, read it and weep.

15) musketeer

n : A soldier armed with a musket.

16) Cabo

: Abbreviation of, Cabo San Lucas/gloss, Cabo is a resort community in Mexico.

17) epic

a : Very large, and impressive.

18) slutting it up

: What one often does after a breakup, usually the end of a longterm, monogamous relationship, which involves promiscuous sex and/or sex play, with a variety of parents. Sometimes accompanied by malicious intent.

e.g> It's only been 2 weeks since I dumped my boyfriend and I've already slutted it up with two other people.

19) driving miss daisy

: driving with the white lady in the car, riding dirty with a quantity of cocaine in the vehicle.

20) squat

v : If you squat, you lower yourself towards the ground, balancing on your feet with your legs bent.

v : People who squat occupy an unused building or unused land without having a legal right to do so.

a : Short and thick, usually in an unattractive way.

n : An empty building that people are living in illegally, without paying any rent or any property tax.

21) mob

n : A large, disorganized, and often violent crowd of people.

n : People sometimes use the mob to refer in a disapproving way to the majority of people in a country or place, especially when these people are behaving in a violent or uncontrolled way.

n : People involved in organized crime as the Mob.

v : If you say that someone is being mobbed by a crowd people, you mean that the people are trying to talk to them or get near them in an enthusiastic or threatening way.

22) snog

v : If one person snogs another, they kiss and hold that person for a period of time. You can also say that two people are snogging.

e.g> I'm 15 and I've never snogged a girl.

23) complication

n : A problem or difficulty that makes a situation harder to deal with.

n : A medical problem that occurs as a result of another illness or disease.

24) downer

n : If you describe a situation as a downer, you think that it is very depressing.

25) back catalogue

n : A musical performer's back catalogue is the music when they recorded and released in the past rather than their latest recordings.

26) B-side

n : The B-side of a pop record has the less important or less popular song on it. Compare A-side.

27) warlock

n : A man who practices black magic ; sorcerer

n : A fortune-teller, conjuror, or magician.

* conjurer

n : A person who entertains people by doing magic tricks.

28) pay up

: to pay(money) promptly, in full, or on demand.

: to give somebody the money that you owe them, especially if you don't want to.

* on demand

: done or happening whenever somebody asks.

e.g> Feed the baby on demand.

29) segue

v : If something such as a piece of music or conversation segues into another piece of music or conversation, it changes into it or is followed by it without a break.

30) act out

: to reproduce (an idea, former event, etc) in actions, often by mimic.

: to express unconsciously (a repressed impulse or experience) in overt behaviour.

* potty training = toilet training

e.g> Most children are potty trained by 2yrs.

* at all = in any way ; to any degree

31) put one over on somebody

: to persuade somebody to accept something that is not true

: to trick somebody

: to show that you are better, stronger, etc. than somebody else by defeating them.

e.g> you try to put some over on me? you are going to lose.

32) fix

v : If you fix some food or a drink for someone, you make it or prepare it for them.

e.g> I will fix you a plate.

33) immerse

v : If you immerse yourself in something that you are doing, you become completely involved in it.

e.g> Since then I've lived alone and immersed myself in my career.

v : If something is immersed in a liquid, someone puts it into the liquid so that it's completely covered.

e.g> The electrodes are immersed in liquid.

* electrodes

n : A small piece of metal or other substance that is used to take an electric current to or from a source of power, a piece of equipment, or a living body.

34) stateside

a : in, from, or to the U.S.

e.g> The band are currently planning a series of stateside gigs.

35) brew

v : If a storm is brewing, large clouds are beginning to form and the sky is becoming dark because there is going to be a storm.

e.g> We'd seen the storm brewing when we were out in the boat.

36) decent

a : to describe something which is considered to be of an acceptable standard or quality.

a : to describe something which is morally correct or acceptable.

a : Decent people are honest and behave in a way that most people approve of.

37) rekindle

v : If something rekindles an interest, feeling, or thought that you used to have, it makes you think about it or feel it again.

v : If something rekindles an unpleasant situation, it makes the unpleasant situation happen again.

* Stop drilling you've stuck oil.

* I will spray you with the hose.

* I made my famous sloppy jays which are really sloppy joes.

* Somebody invites you over, the last thing you want to do is insult them.

* Light bulb went out, you don't change these right away, you never get around to it.

* That's why it's in a noodle.

* ~ now that you are the guys that always bring Lily.

* When we go to Cabo, we have to find a hotel with swim-up bar because this going back and forth to the bathroom is a fool's game.

* Let's at least acknowledge that things have changed between us.

* The year was 1991, America was immersed in Desert Storm, Meanwhile stateside another storm was brewing in my heart.

* Rekindles fires of a dying passion? Shot a ray of hope into this gloomy suburban lie?

NY Times : A Stronger Bill to Limit Surveillance

English/Opinion 2014. 7. 31. 10:40

A Stronger Bill to Limit Surveillance




The Senate is about to begin debate on a bill that could, at long last, put an end to the indiscriminate bulk collection of Americans’ telephone records and bring needed transparency to the abusive spying programs that have tarnished the nation’s reputation.


The bill, to be introduced on Tuesday by Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont, chairman of the Judiciary Committee, is a significant improvement over thehalfhearted measure passed by the House in May. That legislation was notable for putting even Republicans on the record in opposition to the broad domestic spying efforts of the intelligence agencies, but its final version was watered down at the insistence of the White House.


Mr. Leahy said at the time that he wanted to write a stronger bill, and, after negotiating with the White House, he has. Both bills would stop the flow of telephone data into the computers of the National Security Agency, keeping the information with the phone companies, where it belongs. But the Senate bill takes a major step in limiting how much of that data the N.S.A. can request.


It would require the agency to ask for the records of a specific person or address it is tracking, instead of conducting a broad dragnet of an entire area code or city in the hopes of turning up something useful. The government would have to show why it thinks the records it requests are related to a foreign terrorist agent. The vague language in the House bill could easily have been exploited by the agency’s lawyers to conduct far more snooping on personal records than is really needed during a terrorism investigation.


The new bill would also make the process more transparent by requiring the government to disclose how many people’s data was collected by intelligence agencies, and how many of those people were American. It eliminates the one-year waiting period before a recipient can raise a legal challenge to a national security letter, which has been used as a form of extrajudicial subpoena by the F.B.I.



One of the best parts of the bill is a set of changes to the operation of the secretive Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which is often asked to approve the government’s intelligence actions. Currently the judges on the court hear the government’s case without hearing an opposing side. Mr. Leahy’s bill would create a panel of advocates to argue before the court in support of privacy rights and civil liberties, and would require the court to issue public summaries of its decisions that specifically detail the impact on those rights.


The bill could have gone further in allowing the advocates to intervene in a case on behalf of surveillance targets, as a former judge on the surveillance court advocated recently. In addition, privacy advocates and other senators have backed a proposal requiring the government to get the court’s permission before examining communications of Americans that were collected when tracking foreigners. (Spying on noncitizens does not require a judicial warrant, but sometimes that spy data also turns up the records of Americans.) Mr. Leahy should add that provision to his bill, following a similar amendment approved last month by the House.


Over all, the bill represents a breakthrough in the struggle against the growth of government surveillance power. The Senate should pass it without further dilution, putting pressure on the House to do the same.




1) tarnish

v : If you say that something tarnishes someone's reputation or image, you mean that it causes people to have a worse opinion of them than they would otherwise have had.

e.g> The affair could tarnish the reputation of the prime minister.

v : If a metal tarnishes or if something tarnishes it, it becomes stained and loses its brightness.

e.g> It never rusts or tarnishes.

2) half-hearted

a: if someone does something in a half-hearted way, they do it without any real effort, interest, or enthusiasm.

e.g> Joanna had made 1 or 2 half-hearted attempts to befriend Graham's young wife.

3) water (something) down

: to make a liquid weaker by adding water.

e.g> The beer had been watered down.

: to change something such as a speech, a piece of writing, etc to make it less strong and less likely to offend people.

e.g> The criticism had been watered down to avoid giving offence.

4) insistence

n : someone's insistence on something is the fact that they insist that it should be done or insist that it is the case.

5) dragnet

n : a method used by police to catch suspected criminals. A large number of police officers search a specific area, in the hope that they will eventually find the person they are looking for.

6) turn up

v : to arrive or appear

e.g> he turned up late at the party

v : to find or to be find, especially by accident.

e.g> his book turned up in the cupboard.

v : to increase the flow, volume, etc.

e.g> to turn up the radio.

v : to cause to vomit.

7) exploit

v : treating someone unfairly by using your work or ideas and giving you very little in return.

v : to exploit resources or raw materials means to develop them and use them for industry or commercial activities.

n : the brave, interesting, or amusing things they have done.

8) snoop

v : If someone snoops around a place, they secretly look around it in order to find out things.

e.g> Mario was the one he had seen snooping around the room.

v : If someone snoops on a person, they watch them secretly in order to find out things about their life.

e.g> It is revealed as a fact that Korean government has been snooping on people who are innocent.

9) extrajudicial

a : outside the ordinary course of legal proceedings.

e.g> extrajudicial evidence.

a : beyond the jurisdiction or authority of the court.

e.g> an extrajudicial opinion.

10) subpoena

n : a legal document telling someone that they must attend a court of law and give evidence as a witness.

e.g> He has been served with a subpoena to answer the charges in court.

v : If someone subpoenas a person, they give them a legal document telling them to attend a court of law and give evidence.

If someone subpoenas a piece of evidence, the evidence must be produced in a court of law.

e.g> Select committees have the power to subpoena witnesses.

Editorial: A crisis we need to talk about

English/Opinion 2014. 7. 16. 19:05

Editorial: A crisis we need to talk about

The Coalition, in the wake of its recent disruptions, is certainly talking a great deal about renewal. When it comes to the far different matter of doing rather than talking, one issue that must not be lost in the political flux is our ongoing suicide crisis.


Sadly, despite some displays of positive intent, the response to this national trauma provides us with yet another unfortunate example of the Irish capacity to glide away from that which we do not wish to confront. Our establishment are currently investing their scarce resources of emotional intelligence in dealing with the tragedies of half a century ago as distinct to the current crisis.


It is necessary that we confront the truths of our mother and baby homes and our Magdalene children in a belated proper truth and reconciliation process. But, if we fail to properly talk about Ireland's suicide crisis by obsessing solely upon the faults of the past, then as Marx warned all those years ago, we are falling into the ageless trap of repeating them.


It is understandable that our governing class are somewhat shamefaced about the scenario where we have the highest rate of suicide amongst teenage girls in Europe and the second highest for teenage boys. They would be right too for the silent, still tragedies that have afflicted so many of our citizens and their families do not evolve out of a vacuum. Neither can the current level of suicides be simply explained by the familiar comfort blankets of blame such as excessive alcohol or drugs consumption, for something far more fundamental is actually afoot.


One partial cause of the suicide epidemic is undoubtedly the vast economic failure where a quarter of our citizens are not working. The side effects of the politics of austerity are as much psychological and spiritual as they are economic. Hope is one of the most important springs of social happiness and in passing of economic entrepreneurial skills. But, the psychological desolation that accompanies the desert of austerity is only one in a complex series of factors that have facilitated the rise of this crisis.


The other key factor in all of this is that our citizens and our young live in a state where faith has collapsed. We know now that the imperious facade of the Irish church was a front for opportunistic child abusers and ambitious careerism. A political class hollowed out by insufferable complacency and intellectual nihilism has failed the state and the citizen. The public sector has degenerated into a self perpetuating collective of Venetian Doges who now act as a vested interest rather than in the national interest.


All the pillars of society have crumbled, leaving nothing for our citizens and children to believe in beyond the hollow blandishments of an amoral digital age. The repair of such a fundamental breach in civic society where direction and hope has been replaced by a soiled vacuum is far more critical than the issue of whether some former Labour leader secures a European sinecure or who gets what in our toothless cabinet of EU satraps. One would, alas not think it from the current public discourse, but, we need to start to talk about real issues such as how to create a community where our children grow up in some better place than a valley of anomie.


Significantly, this crisis of alienation is not confined to Ireland. The rise of fascism in Europe and the creation of the first Caliphate since the Ottoman Empire might seem like far distant affairs with little relevance to our own world. Both, though, are part of the gathering revolt against the declining Western model of society. Political vacuums, as we know too well, facilitate the rise of ancestral vices. Be it in the East or our own state lost in transition, it is time our self-selecting elite move to combat such vacuums with a better alternative. That, after all, is their job.


Sunday Independent

1) flux

n : If something is in a state of flux, it is constantly changing.

2) glide

v : If you glide somewhere, you move silently and in a smooth and effortless way.

v : when birds or aeroplanes glide, they float on air currents.

3) magdalene

n : a reformed prostitute

n : a reformatory for prostitutes.

4) reconciliation

n : reconciliation between two people or countries who have quarrelled is the process of their becoming friends again.

n : the reconciliation of two beliefs, facts, or demands that seem to be opposed is the process of finding a way in which they can both be true or both be successful.

5) ageless

a : If you describe someone as ageless, you mean that they never seem to look any older

a : If you describe something as ageless, you mean that it is impossible to tell how old it is, or that it seems to have existed forever.

6) shamefaced

a: If you are shamefaced, you feel embarrassed because you have done something that you know you should not have done.

7) afflict

v : If you are afflicted by pain, illness, or disaster, it affects you badly and makes you suffer.

8) vacuum

n : If someone or something creates a vacuum, they leave a place or position which then needs to be filled by another person or thing.

n : a space that contains no air or other gas.

v : If you vacuum something, you clean it using a vacuum cleaner.

9) afoot

a : If you say that a plan or scheme is afoot, it is already happening or being planned, but you do not know how much about it.

10) spring

n : a spiral of wire which returns to its original shape after it is pressed or pulled.

n : a place where water comes up through the ground. It is also the water that comes from that place.

11) entrepreneurial

a : having the qualities that are needed to succeed as an entrepreneur.

12) desolation

n : a feeling of great unhappiness and hopelessness

n : If you refer to desolation in a place, you mean that it is empty and frightening, for example, because it has been destroyed by a violent force or army.

13) facilitate

v : to facilitate an action or process, especially one that you would like to happen, means to make it easier or more likely to happen.

14) imperious

a : If you describe someone as imperious, you mean that they have a proud manner and expect to be obeyed.

15) facade

n : The facade of a building, especially a large one, is its front wall or the wall that faces the street.

n : A facade is an outward appearance which is deliberately false and gives you a wrong impression about someone or something.

16) opportunistic

a : If you describe someone's behaviour as opportunistic, you are critical of them because they take advantage of situations in order to gain money or power, without their actions are right or wrong.

17) hollow something out

: to make a space inside something by removing pare of it.

: to form something by making a hole in something else.

18) insufferable

a : If you say that someone or something is insufferable, you are emphasizing that they are very unpleasant or annoying.

19) complacency

n : complacency is being complacent about a situation.

* complacent

n : a complacent person is very pleased with themselves or feels that they do not need to do anything about a situation, even though the situation may be uncertain or dangerous.

20) nihilism

n : a belief which rejects all political and religious authority and current ideas in favour of the individual.

21) crumble

v : If something crumbles, or if you crumble it, it breaks into a lot of small pieces.

v : If an old building or piece of land is crumbling, parts of it keep breaking off.

v: If something such as a system, relationship, or hope crumbles, it comes to an end.

v: If someone crumbles, they stop resisting or trying to win, or become unable to cope.

22) blandishments

n : pleasant things that someone says to another person in order to persuade them to do something.

23) amoral

a : If you describe someone as amoral, you do not like the way they behave because they do not seem to care whether what they do is right or wrong.

24) breach

v : If you breach an agreement, a law, or a promise, you break it.

v : If someone or something breaches a barrier, they make an opening in it, usually leaving it weakened or destroyed.

v : If you breach someone's security or their defences, you manage to get through and attack an area that is heavily guarded and protected.

n : A breach of an agreement, a law, or a promise, is an act of breaking it.

n : A breach in a relationship is a serious disagreement which often results in the relationship ending.

25) soil (= territory)

v : If you soil something, you make it dirty.

26) sinecure

n : a job for which you receive payment but which does not involve much work or responsibility.

27) satrap

n : (in ancient Persia) a provincial governor

n : a subordinate ruler, especially a despotic one.

* despotic

a : emphasizing that they use their power over other people in a very unfair or cruel way.

28) alas

ad : to say that you think that the facts you are talking about are sad or unfortunate.

29) discourse

n : discourse is spoken or written communication between people, especially serious discussion of a particular subject.

n : a serious talk or piece of writing which is intended to teach or explain something.

v : If someone discourses on something, they talk for a long time about it in a confident way.

30) anomie

n : lack of social of moral standards in an individual or society.

31) alienation

n : a turning away ; estrangement

n : the state of being an outsider or the feeling of being isolated, as from society.

n : a state in which a person's feelings are inhibited so that eventually both the self and the external world seem unreal.

n : the transfer of property, as by conveyance or will, into the ownership of another.

n : the right of an owner to dispose of his property.

32) confine

v : to confine something to a particular place or group means to prevent it from spreading beyond that place or group.

v : If you confine yourself or you activities to something, you do only that thing and are involved with nothing else.

v : If someone is confined to a mental institution, prison, or other place, they are sent there and are not allowed to leave for a period of time.

n : something that is within the confines of an area or place is within the boundaries enclosing it.

n : the confines of a situation, system, or activity are the limits or restrictions it invovles.

33) facism

n : a set of right-wing political beliefs that includes strong control of society and the economy by the state, a powerful role for the armed forces, and the stopping of political opposition.

34) caliphate

n: the office, jurisdiction, or reign of a caliph

* caliph : a Muslim ruler

35) vice

n : a habit which is regarded as a weakness in someone's character, but not usually as a serious fault.

n : criminal activities, especially those connected with pornography or prostitution.

n : a tool with a pair of parts that hold an object tightly while you do work on it.